Paper/Speech Archive - Heritage Lodge No. 730

Short History of the development of
English Freemasonry in Guyana 1780 – 2004.

By INDERJEET BEHARRY

(presented to Heritage Lodge at the Annual Banquet, Scarborough Masonic Temple, January 29, 2005)
The complete paper was printed in the Proceedings of the Heritage Lodge, November 2005.

Origins

Guyana, formerly British Guiana, is the only English-speaking country in South America. The first Europeans who settled in Guyana were the Dutch in the 16th century and they founded three colonies – Essequibo, Demerary and Berbice – later united into British Guiana after the British had annexed the three colonies in 1815.1

English Freemasonry tends to occur wherever British people are settled, irrespective of whether the territory of settlement was a colony or not. And in Guyana, it occurred in a Dutch colony among British settlers. One may wonder what were British settlers doing in a Dutch colony.

In 1740, the great Dutch Governor, Laurens Storm van’s Gravesande, felt that the only way to develop the colony was by importation of population. He therefore issued a proclamation inviting settlers, giving them lands for plantations and exemption from taxation. Many British West Indian planters whose lands had become exhausted as well as some from Britain took advantage of Gravesande’s offer and moved into the colony with their slaves and capital. 2 Soon, there was a sizeable number, some among whom were Freemasons.

The first known English Lodge was one which existed around 1780 and which was called “Three Friends”. This name was probably derived from the term “Three Rivers”, an appellation of the colony which consisted of three major rivers – Essequibo, Demerara and Berbice. This Lodge first met in Essequibo at Fort Island which was the then capital of the colony.3

The next known English Lodge was “Chosen Friends” which existed in Demerara in the last decade or two of the 18th century. “Chosen Friends” is mentioned in some early correspondence of Union Lodge and it is suggested that “Chosen Friends” changed its name to Union in 1813 when it was granted a charter by the Grand Lodge of Ancient York Masons of London (“Ancients”) on 29th July, 1813. Later in that year, in November 1813, there was a union of the two opposing Grand Lodges in England to form the United Grand Lodge of Ancient Free And Accepted Masons of England. Union was then registered under the United Grand Lodge of England with the number 462. In 1813, a new number, 308, was assigned. Then in 1863, its present number 247, was given.4

Union Lodge has always had the reputation of being the mother-Lodge of English Freemasonry in Guyana and throughout the 19th century and for most of the 20th century, all English and even Scottish Lodges turned to Union if they needed any advice, help or clarifications.

The next English Lodge founded in Guyana was Mount Olive in 1822. The charter was granted by the Provincial Grand Master of Barbados, Bro. John A. Beckles. The Grand Secretary of the United Grand Lodge wrote Bro. B. Day of Union Lodge mentioning that the Provincial Grand Master had no authority to charter a lodge outside of his Province, Barbados. Mount Olive was therefore deemed irregular until it obtained a charter from England. In December 1826, it obtained a charter from United Grand Lodge, being given the number of 812 first and finally 385.5

The third English Lodge to be founded was Phoenix Lodge in New Amsterdam, Berbice. Phoenix was warranted on 27th July 1857 and lapsed about 1875, being finally erased on 6th June 1894. The fourth English Lodge, other than the District Grand Lodge to be founded in Guyana in the 19th century was Ituni No.2642 which was chartered on 29th December 1896, and consecrated on 20th September 1897 in New Amsterdam, Berbice.6

In 1897 therefore, there existed three lodges which was a base enough to form a District Grand Lodge. A District Grand Lodge was duly inaugurated on Saturday 28th October 1899 at Freemasons’ Hall, Company Path, Georgetown with Lt. Col. Thomas Daly as District Grand Master.7

The development of English Freemasonry in the 19th century in Guyana was not all plain sailing. And this could be seen in two trends. The first is that it took nearly three-quarters of a century after the founding of Mount Olive for another properly organized lodge to be formed – Ituni. The Masonic membership throughout the 19th century was almost completely European consisting of personnel employed in the Sugar Industry, in the Commercial Sector and in the Colonial Administration. Such brethren were particularly affected by the economic trends and if the colony was in economic decline they would be forced to leave. Most of the 19th century Masonic brethren were highly educated, financially well-off, wielded much influence and power in the colony and were the elite and cream of the society.

The economy of the colony was based on the Sugar Industry and in the early 1830’s slavery was abolished and this caused the collapse of the Industry since its labour supply was gravely diminished. The collapse of the Sugar Industry led to a serious economic decline in the colony and the emigration of the majority of Masonic brethren. Recovery only came about when there was an adequate number of indentured workers to man the plantations’ labour force. This only began to come about in the 1850’s. Accordingly between 1833 when slavery was abolished to about 1856, both Union and Mount Olive Lodges became dormant, faithfully mirroring the colony’s economic condition.8

From the 1850’s when the economy began to recover, Freemasonry, and particularly Union Lodge enjoyed an unprecedented period of prosperity and creativity to the end of the 19th century. Among the many achievements was the rebuilding of Freemasons’ Hall at Company Path since the temple constructed in 1816 had fallen into decay during the 20-year dormancy of the lodge.9

The 20th century has seen the extension of Freemasonry to include all segments of Guyana’s multi-religious, multi-racial society as well as the catering for specialized groups. This extension was reflected in the consecration of approximately four times the number of lodges created in the 18th and 19th centuries.

The first lodge inaugurated in the 20th century was Silent Temple No.3254 which was consecrated on 28th January 1908. Silent Temple has an interesting history in that it catered for brethren of Chinese ancestry and had a distinctly Chinese character. One of the main characteristics of such distinctiveness was the provision of Chinese food at after proceedings. The Lodge uses a York Rite Ritual which was adopted from Mount Olive which also practices the York Rite.10

Silent Temple was followed by Concord Lodge No. 3508 which was consecrated on 20th March 1912. Concord largely catered for expatriates who were engaged in commerce and the civil and military services. It first used the “Perfect Ceremonies of Craft Masonry” as its ritual and continued to do so for the next 50 years, when in 1967 it adopted the Taylor Ritual.11

Seven years later, Roraima Lodge No. 3902 was consecrated on 16th May 1919. This lodge largely catered for the coloured ethnic group who had grown to be educated, cultured and fairly affluent. Since its foundation more than eight decades ago, it has maintained a membership of between 30 and 35 and concentrates on quality rather than quantity in keeping with its motto. It uses the Emulation Ritual.12

Mount Everest No. 5868 was consecrated on 15th April 1943. It was founded to cater for Indians who had grown into a community with a surfeit of good Masonic material which was not being absorbed into the extant English Lodges. In a short time the Lodge had grown into the largest individual lodge in Guyana. The Lodge uses the Emulation Ritual.13

After the consecration of Mount Everest, there was a lull for almost three decades without any new lodges being formed. Then in the last thirty years of the century there was unprecedented blossoming of several new lodges. The new lodges largely catered for special groups whether they were professionals, University of Guyana personnel, Rotarians, the overflow of an extant lodge, or even the members of a private club. These new lodges which were consecrated between the 1970’s and 1990’s numbered eight.

Kara Kara Lodge No.8349 was the first of these eight new lodges. It was consecrated on 27th November 1970 at Linden, the Bauxite Mining Town. The Lodge was able to build an ample hall in quite beautiful surroundings and progressed very well in its earlier years. The decline of the Bauxite Industry and the migration of residents out of the town have negatively affected the Lodge. The Ritual used is Emulation.14

Eureka Lodge No. 8515 was the second of these eight new lodges. It was consecrated on 25th September 1973 and it catered for professionals. It was the first Lodge in Guyana for two centuries which held eight meetings per year rather than twelve. This departure set a trend which was adopted by the Lodges which were subsequently formed. A noteworthy event in Eureka’s history was the difference it had with the District Grand Master in 1984. This will be dealt with later at greater length. The Lodge uses the Taylor Ritual.15

The Guyana Lodge of Research No.8525 was consecrated a month after Eureka on 31st October 1973. The Lodge meets thrice per year and is tasked with stimulating Masonic research and making the fruits of such research available to all brethren. The Lodge uses the Emulation Ritual.16

Lotus Lodge No.8735 was consecrated on 26th November 1976 to cater for the overflow from Mount Everest. Many of its customs are borrowed from Mount Everest and there are close filial relations between Mount Everest and Lotus. Lotus uses the Sussex Ritual.17

Klubba Lodge No.9103 was consecrated on 9th June 1984. This Lodge caters for members of the Georgetown Club, Guyana’s oldest and most prestigious social club. Klubba has some unique customs, one of which is that visiting brethren attended strictly by invitation. The Lodge uses the Logic Ritual.18

University Lodge of Guyana No.9331 was consecrated on October 4, 1989. It caters for the alumni of the University of Guyana and the academic and professional staff of that institution. The Lodge uses the Taylor Ritual.19

The Guyana Wheel of Service Lodge No.9431 was consecrated on 8th November 1991 and caters for Rotary Club members. The Lodge uses the Emulation Ritual.20

Phoenix Lodge No. 9517 was the last Lodge inaugurated in the 20th century. It was consecrated on 6th November 1993 in New Amsterdam, Berbice and revived the memory of a New Amsterdam Lodge of similar name which lapsed about 1875 and was finally erased in 1894. Phoenix does not cater for any particular group but its activities and membership is particularly Berbician . It uses the Taylor Ritual.21

The then District Grand Master, Rt. Wor. Bro. Peter Taylor was one of the main inspirers of the Lodges founded between 1970’s and 1990’s. He took a great interest in helping Lodges to organize themselves and gave much valuable advice and guidance. His vision seemed to have been that these various Lodges, once given a good start, would take off and develop on their own into prosperous institutions.

Unfortunately Rt. Wor. Bro. Taylor’s positive vision did not bear full fruit. The progress of the Lodges was much slower than had been originally envisaged. This slow progress was due to three main reasons. Firstly, these Lodges were all consecrated at a time that the Guyana economy had become sluggish and was declining. A declining economy rebounds negatively on Freemasonry in that it stimulates emigration of Masonic and prospective Masonic members. The symbiotic relationship between poor economic conditions and declining Masonic prosperity was clearly exemplified between 1833 and 1856 when Union and Mount Olive Lodges, in effect English Freemasonry in Guyana, fell into a state of dormancy.

The second main reason for this slow progress or even decline of the Lodges was that their founders and indeed many of the ordinary members already belonged to one or more Lodges. Membership of the newer Lodges often became something of a pressure on the time and energy of many founders and early members since as many new members as had been expected had not come forward. The main reason for this was of course the absence of a booming economy.

And the last major reason has been the poor Lodge management which has permeated all the Lodges in varying degrees. Lodge Committees had become unimaginative and a sense of apathy had crept over them. Secretaries were generally young, inexperienced, busy people in their normal lives but oftentimes Masonically inefficient. Such poor management resulted in the Lodges falling into financial difficulties, failing to initiate new members, and even to maintain contact with members, leading to the alienation and eventual falling away of members.

Despite the malaise which has pervaded the English Lodges by the end of the 20th Century, there has been no despondency. There is still a great deal of vitality evidenced in the Lodges and workings are fairly well attended and impacting. And in the last two years, that is 2003/4 many Lodges have made it a policy to try to initiate at least four new members per year. From the indications, English Freemasonry will recover its former vitality in a short time.

District Grand Lodge - Such vitality is clearly evident in the District Grand Lodge itself. The District Grand Lodge was inaugurated in October 1899 at the turn of the old to a new millennium. The District was blessed with several eminent and able District Grand Masters including Rt. Wor. Bro. Sir Joseph Godfrey a member of the Executive Council and one of the great medical doctors in the then colony; Rt. Wor. Bro. Frank Mackey who was loved and respected by brethren of both the English and Scottish Lodges and whose energy and administrative ability were legendary. And of course, His Grace, the Lord Archbishop of the West Indies Rt. Wor. Bro. Alan John Knight whose splendid reign of 38 years would long be remembered. His Lordship was awarded the Order of Service to Masonry, the highest honour in English Freemasonry. His Lordship brought much scholarship, dignity, humanity and organizing ability to the Craft.

From the inauguration of District Grand Lodge, it has successfully joined the various Lodges to itself and has maintained discipline and guidance of Guyanese Freemasonry. Indeed, its informal assistance and guidance have always been sought and appreciated by both lodges and individual members. It has administered the maintenance of Freemasons’ Hall, a gigantic task, and has efficiently represented English Freemasonry, both locally and internationally. It is the link with the United Grand Lodge. 22

The relationship with the United Grand Lodge has always been close and fruitful. The District Grand Lodge was represented at the consecration of the Masonic Peace Memorial in 1933 and also at the 250th and 275th Anniversary celebrations of Grand Lodge. Several Guyanese members were able to benefit from the Masonic Boys and Girls Schools and to receive treatment at the Royal Masonic Hospital. Guyanese Masons have always been able to keep in the touch with happenings in Masonry at the international level by reading the various publications of Grand Lodge. From 1909 to the present, Grand Lodge has conferred the honour of Past Grand Rank on several Guyanese Masons.

The District Grand Lodge has always been involved in Charity. This aspect of the District Grand Lodge’s work has grown in recent years and is making greater and greater impact with the passing of each year.

District Grand Lodge is aware of the problems affecting the individual Lodges and has been playing its part in rejuvenating them. The District Grand Lodge provides an example to the private Lodges of how to overcome difficulties and act fully within Masonic propriety. Part of this noticeable energy of District Grand Lodge could be attributed to the fact that we have a new District Grand Master, Rt. Wor. Bro. Richard Fields, who is the first locally born District Grand Master and who is dedicated to creating an even more prosperous District.

We could, of course not cover the stories of the individual lodges, and their histories important though they may be, in this broad survey of English Freemasonry. Yet, it is in the individual lodge histories that we encounter the unusual and interesting. To recount such happenings would certainly provide much valuable and entertaining Masonic lore but such would take up numerous pages. We would however mention a sample.

Mount Olive’s belated protest against the inauguration of a District Grand Lodge. The District Grand Lodge was consecrated at the end of October 1899. Over a month after, Mount Olive wrote expressing their disagreement with having a District Grand Lodge! Five months later, the District Grand Master wrote Mount Olive explaining that the suggestion came from the Grand Master himself, HRH Albert Prince of Wales. Mount Olive thereafter became a strong supporter and upholder of the District Grand Lodge.23

For most of the 20th century, there was a strong inhibition among English Masons to participate in processions clothed in regalia. In the 19th century and early 20th century, our brethren of those times seemed to have felt less inhibited than we do today. We will mention two such public processions, both because of their intrinsic importance, and also to record the process of a formal Masonic foundation stone-laying.

Laying of corner stone of St. Phillip’s Church. St Phillips is one of the most important Anglican Churches in Guyana and it has the largest close of any place of worship in Guyana. Union Lodge obtained a Dispensation from Grand Lodge for the brethren to wear their regalia in public procession. On 29th September 1864, fifty eight members of Union Lodge formed the procession. The Contemporary Newspaper, The Royal Gazette, described the manner in which the stone was laid:-

“Wor. Bro. B.V. Abraham, W.M., having informed the Brethren that the Lodge had been called for the purpose of laying the Foundation Stone of St. Phillip’s Church, the Dispensation was read and the Lodge was adjourned to Bishop’s College, where the procession formed and proceeded from thence to the site, Bro. Nicholas Cox being appointed Marshal for the day.

The Foundation Stone was lowered into its place and the W.M. directed the Junior Warden to apply his plumb to the stone to see that it was duly upright. The W.M. next directed the Senior warden to apply his Level which having been done, the S.W. reported that the stone was level. The W.M. then applied the Square to the Stone and declared it to be well and truly laid. Corn, Wine and Oil having in conformity with ancient custom, been offered on the stone, the acting Chaplain offered up a prayer after which the W.M. struck the stone thrice and declared it laid.
The procession re-formed and returned to Bishop’s College and afterwards the Brethren re-assembled at the Lodge.” 26

The other foundation stone-laying ceremony was for the Carnegie Library building. Bro. Andrew Carnegie, a Scottish immigrant, was a Freemason who had made a large fortune in America. One of his many acts of public charity was to present public free libraries to developing countries. The Carnegie Library has now evolved into the National Library but Bro. Carnegie is still remembered as having made one of the most important and valuable benefactions to the population of Guyana. ARF Webber in his “Centenary History and Handbook of British Guiana” describes the laying:-

“In April, 1908, the City of Georgetown enjoyed a little ‘storm in the teapot’ when Sir Frederick Hodgson decided that the foundation stone of the new Carnegie building should be laid by the District Grand Master of the Masonic Lodge, Sir Joseph Godfrey, Surgeon General, and a leading member of the Executive Council. The Roman Catholic citizens held that such an elevation of Free Masonry was an affront to them and would exclude them from taking part and the controversy grew intense and heated, but the Governor held his way and, on 25th April, Dr. Godfrey in full Masonic regalia, accompanied by his officers and a large number of Masons in Lodge attire laid the foundation stone”.27

Religion - Early Guyanese Freemasonry was often associated with the Christian Religion and in the 18th and 19th centuries, Masonic Lodges, though ritually secular, did have a Christian bias simply because all members were nominally Christian and Christianity was de facto the state religion.

In the 20th century, as more and more non-Christians, especially Hindus and Muslims, began to enter Freemasonry, the Christian bias gradually receded. This was manifested from the 1950’s with the use of the Bhagwat Gita, Ramayan, Vedas and Koran as VSL’s in addition to the Bible. Scottish Masonry, which was far more Christian-oriented, also adopted the English procedure of having several VSL’s available and there is even consideration of changing the nomenclature of the office of “Bible-bearer” to some other neutral term such as “Bearer of the VSL” 31

Masonic Temples - There are four buildings which are used as Temples for English Freemasonry. The first and oldest is at Company Path, Church Street, Georgetown; the second is at 86 Carmichael Street, Georgetown; the third is at Ferry Street, New Amsterdam, Berbice; and the fourth is at Linden, Demerara River. All buildings are wooden.

All buildings conform to the cannons of Masonic Architecture, especially in the interior of the temples. The interior of the temples are however not uniform but there are variations which add interest. The furniture also differ in some respects. For example, the five architectural columns at the Company Path building are particularly outstanding, and there is the disc of the Flaming Star at the Ituni building which none of the other temples has. It should be mentioned that there is a large, impressive, unique and priceless banqueting table which dates from the early 19th century at the Company Path building.

The first Masonic building on the Company Path site was certainly in use in 1816 just when the colony had become British. It was on land which was given as a Royal Grant. This early building had fallen into decay by the 1850’s owing to its owner, Union Lodge, falling into a 20- year period of dormancy. An entirely new building had to be constructed in 1856. It is basically this same building which is in use today. Despite the repairs and renovations done over a century, much of the original structure remains. The only major change to the architecture of 1856 building was the removal of the tower in the 1950’s. The interior of the temple has remained the same from the 1850’s except that the chairs were replaced by elevated benches which were more utilitarian, in that brethren were allowed a better view of the ceremonies and seating for a larger number was provided. 35

There are remarkable photos available in Bro. Maggs’s History of Union Lodge published in 1913. The temple has remained as it was a century ago, the main changes being the replacing of the chairs by elevated and the west side. Company Path building’s temple as it was a century ago, the east of the temple with the Master's chair benches, the removal of photos from the wall and the placing of the celestial and terrestrial globes and their respective columns on either side of the interior of the entrance door.

The building at 86 Carmichael Street is owned by Mount Olive Lodge who bought the building on August 6, 1891 from the Loyal Albion Oddfellows. The building has undergone little change over the last century. One of the striking things of the building are the three-dimensional concrete replicas of Bro. Pythogoras’s famous theorem on either side of the entrance stairway. The building was consecrated on June 22nd, 1907.

The building used by Ituni and Phoenix Lodges located in Ferry Street, New Amsterdam as their temple was acquired in 1904. Much repair was done to the building. In 1928 a tower with the entrance porch and winding stairway was added to the building. Since then, the building has remained much the same despite the extensive repairs carried out in the 1990’s.

The fourth Masonic building is that at Linden owned by Kara Kara Lodge, the only Lodge in the area. This building was specially designed and built for a Masonic Lodge and is quite commodious and comfortable. The building was dedicated on May 23rd, 1992.

Dress - From the earliest days of Freemasonry, evening dress was worn. This was an achievement in the 18th and early 19th centuries when life in the colony, even among the European upper class, was very Spartan and basic. Until the 1950’s strict evening wear was worn when this was replaced by black or dark suit and black tie.

In early 1970’s, the government of the day, declared the shirt-jac or guayabera to be the national dress to be worn at official and formal functions. And soon, at all official receptions, in Parliament, in the Churches, and even among the Diplomatic Corps, suits and ties disappeared and were replaced by shirt-jacs. The government and some of its supporters brought serious pressures on Freemasonry to change its dress code at a time when opposition to such pressure held out serious dangers. The lodges quietly resisted and Freemasons’ lodges remained the last oases of formal and semi-formal dress. This question of dress has gone the full circle and today suits and ties have again become the norm.

Relationship with Scottish Freemasonry - Scottish Freemasonry was formally established in Guyana with the founding of Lodge Unity No 797 S.C. in 1893. After the first year or two of coldness between the English and Scottish Constitutions following the establishment of Lodge Unity in 1893, relations began to grow warmer and there came to be close co-operation between the two Constitutions. The Grand Lodge of Scotland knew of the growing fraternal relationships between the two Constitutions as could be seen from a letter by Bro. David Reid, the Grand Secretary of the Grand Lodge of Scotland who wrote in May 1906:-
“ I am very pleased indeed to hear of the cordial relations that have been established between the English brethren and members of Lodge Unity”.

Royal Arch Chapters - Union Lodge was the first to have had a Royal Arch Chapter. From 1825, when its Royal Arch Chapter was established, only Union brethren were exalted. Mount Olive could never had had enough Companions to form its own Chapter. Mount Olive had to look to the Scottish Constitution in the West Indies to assist them to establish a Royal Arch Chapter.

In a similar way, though much later, Mount Everest and Silent Temple Lodge jointly formed a Scottish Chapter, “Temple Everest”. This joint effort was probably based on their Asianness, since Mount Everest and Silent Temple were largely Indian and Chinese respectively in their membership. 38

In the 1970’s, Rt. Wor. Bro. Peter Taylor who was District Grand Secretary and later District Grand Master, led the movement to ensure that all English Lodges had their own Royal Arch Chapters or full access to one. As a result of Rt. Wor. Bro. Taylor’s efforts Royal Arch Masonry began to flourish among English Masons as it had never done before.

Banners - All the English Lodges in Guyana have banners with mottos. Most of these banners are colourful and several of them have been painted by renowned national artists such as Burrowes, Dudley Charles, Broodhagen and Angold Thompson. Most of their mottos have wise and weighty moral injunctions. Banners are displayed at all Regular Meetings and at the Communications of District Grand Lodge. Unlike in Scottish Masonry, Banners are regarded as an essential among local English Lodges.

Image of English Freemasonry - In the two centuries of the existence of English Freemasonry in Guyana, there have never been anti-Masonic manifestations as have occurred in other countries. Even the Roman Catholic Church and Catholics in general have the highest regard for Freemasonry and there is absolutely no residuum locally of the Church’s ancient adversarial attitudes. Many Catholics have become excellent and respected Freemasons.

The image of the Craft has always been a positive one because of the charitable help Freemasons and District Grand Lodge so freely proffer to the less fortunate and because the vast majority of Freemasons tend to be men of culture, respectability, education, and influence in the Society and men who give public service.

INDERJEET BEHARRY


REFERENCES

Except for Rodway’s History, all references are made in very slim publications which it is quite easy to rapidly peruse. We have therefore not given page references.

1. Making of Guyana – Vere T. Daly. Macmillian Education. London 1974.
2. History of British Guiana from the year 1688 to the present time (3 vols) – James Rodway. J. Thompson, Georgetown, 1891.
3. Centenary of Union Lodge No. 247 E.R. 1813-1913. Short History done by W.Bro. Charles James Maggs, District Grand Organist. Batten and Davies, Clapham S.W. London, England. 1913.
4. Centenary of Union Lodge No. 247 ER 1813-1913 – C.J. Maggs. Batten & Davies, Clapham S.W. London. 1913.
5. Centenary Souvenir of District Grand Lodge 1899 – 1999, Georgetown 1999.
6. Synoptical History of Ituni Lodge No. 2642 ER. Berbice, Guyana 1998.
7. Centenary Souvenir of District Grand Lodge 1899 – 1999. Georgetown 1999.
8. 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21 – Pen pictures of Lodges which appeared in Centenary Souvenir of District Grand Lodge 1899 – 1999 Georgetown, 1999.
22. Centenary Souvenir of District Grand Lodge 1899 – 1999. Georgetown 1999.
23. Centenary of Union Lodge No. 247 ER 1813-1913 – C.J. Maggs. Batten & Davies, Clapham S.W. London 1913.
24. Centenary Souvenir of District Grand Lodge 1899 – 1999 – Georgetown 1999
25. Records of Eureka Lodge No. 8515 ER.
26. Centenary of Union Lodge No 247 ER 1813 – 1913 – C.J. Maggs, Batten & Davies, Clapham S.W. London, 1913.
27. Centenary Souvenir of District Grand Lodge 1899 – 1999. Georgetown 1999.
28. Records of Mount Everest Lodge No. 5868 ER.
29. Centenary of Union Lodge No. 247 ER 1813-1913 – C.J. Maggs. Batten & Davies, Clapham S.W. London 1913.
30. Records of Eureka Lodge No 8515 ER.
31. Records of Mount Everest Lodge No. 5868 ER.
32. Address by the District Grand Master, His Grace The Lord Archbishop of the West Indies at Convocation at Ituni Lodge, Berbice on 28th October 1966. -Minutes of the District Grand Lodge.
33. Records of Mount Everest Lodge No. 5868 ER.
34. Centenary Souvenir of District Grand Lodge 1899 – 1999.
35. Centenary of Union Lodge No. 247 ER 1813 – 1913 – C.J. Maggs. Batten & Davies, Clapham S.W., London 1913.
36. Booklet on the building of Kara Kara Masonic Hall – WBro. R.I. Anthony. Linden. May 1992.
37. History of Lodge Unity No. 797 S.C. – 1893 – 1943 – Robert J. Bowling. Guyana, 1943.
38. Story of the first twenty-five years of Temple Everest, R.A. Chapter 705 S.C. 1946 – 1971. Georgetown 1971.

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